Duy Tân

For the Duy Tân modernisation movement, see Duy Tân hội.
Duy Tân
Emperor of Vietnam

Emperor Duy Tan
Emperor of Vietnam
Reign 19071916
Predecessor Thành Thái
Successor Khải Định
Born (1900-09-19)19 September 1900
Huế, Việt Nam
Died 26 December 1945(1945-12-26) (aged 45)
Central African Republic
Burial An Lăng
Huế, Việt Nam
Spouse Imperial Noble Consort Mai Thị Vàng
3 French domestic partners
Issue Yves Claude Vinh-San, Prince Bảo Vàng
4 other sons and 5 daughters
Full name
Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh San
Nguyễn Phúc Hoàng
Era name and dates
Duy Tân: 1907–1916
House Nguyễn Dynasty
Father Emperor Thành Thái
Mother Concubine Nguyễn Thị Định
Duy Tân
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabet Duy Tân
Duy Tân
Vietnamese alphabet Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh San

Emperor Duy Tân (born Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh San; 19 September 1900 26 December 1945), was a boy emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty and reigned for 9 years between 1907 and 1916.


Early childhood

Duy Tân (at the time, known by his birth name, Prince Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh San) was son of the Thành Thái emperor. Because of his opposition to French rule and his erratic, depraved actions (which some speculate were feigned to shield his opposition from the French) Thành Thái was declared insane and exiled to Vũng Tàu in 1907. The French decided to pass the throne to his son Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh San, despite the fact that he was only seven years old. The French hoped that someone so young would be easily influenced and controlled, and thus raised to be pro-French.

Reign 1906-1916

Emperor Duy Tan in 1907.

The efforts on the part of the French to raise the prince to support them largely failed. Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh San was enthroned with the reign name of Duy Tân, meaning "friend of reform", but in time he proved incapable of living up to this name. As he became older he noticed that, even though he was treated as the emperor, it was the colonial authorities who were actually obeyed. As he became a teenager, Emperor Duy Tân came under the influence of the mandarin Trần Cao Vân, who was very much opposed to the colonial administration. Emperor Duy Tân began to plan a secret rebellion with Trần Cao Vân and others to overthrow the French.

In 1916, while France was preoccupied with fighting World War I, Emperor Duy Tân was smuggled out of the Forbidden City with Trần Cao Vân to call upon the people to rise up against the French. However, the secret was revealed and France immediately sent troops there, and after only a few days, they were betrayed and captured by the French authorities. Because of his age and in order to avoid a worse situation, Emperor Duy Tân was deposed and exiled instead of being killed. Trần Cao Vân and the rest of the revolutionaries were all beheaded. Prince Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh San was exiled with his father to Réunion Island in the Indian Ocean.

Exile in Reunion Island

Prince Vĩnh San continued to favor national liberation for Vietnam in exile. During World War II he resisted the Vichy Regime until the Liberation of La Réunion, after which he joined the Free French Forces and became a low-ranking naval officer on the French destroyer Léopard, serving as radio officer. He then joined the Free French army as a second lieutenant in December 1942, receiving successive promotions to lieutenant (1943), captain (1944), major (July 1945) and lieutenant-colonel (September 1945).[1]

Plane crash in Central Africa

When France was facing defeat by the Viet Minh, and the regime of Emperor Bảo Đại proved incapable of gaining any public support, French leader Charles de Gaulle talked to Prince Vĩnh San, who was still very popular in the Vietnamese public memory for his patriotism, about returning to Vietnam as Emperor. However, he died in a plane crash in Central Africa on his way home to Vietnam in 1945 and the great hopes of many died with him - as a patriotic challenge to Hồ Chí Minh.[2] For his wartime service, the French posthumously awarded him the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour and the Officer's Médaille de la Résistance, also appointing him a Companion of the Ordre de la Libération.[3]

Reburial in Vietnam

In 1987, his son, Prince Bảo Vàng, and the royal family of Vietnam accompanied his father's remains, which were removed from Africa and brought home to Vietnam in a traditional ceremony to rest in the tomb of his grandfather, Emperor Dục Đức.[4]

In 2001, Prince Bảo Vang wrote a book titled Duy Tân, Empereur d'Annam 19001945 about his father's life.[5]

Most cities in Vietnam have named major streets after him.[6]

Duy Tân
Born: 1899 Died: 1945
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Thành Thái
Emperor of Vietnam
Succeeded by
Khải Định


  1. David G. Marr Vietnam: State, War, and Revolution (1945-1946) 2013 p615 "From September 1945, de Gaulle had considered the idea of touring Indochina following a triumphant Show of force, accompanied by Prince Vĩnh San, the former boy Emperor Duy Tân .. "
  2. CÉRÉMONIE D’INHUMATION A HUE  Viet Nam at vinhsan.free.fr
  3. Presentation du livre sur l empereur Duy Tan at vinhsan.free.fr
  4. Vietnam Country Map. Periplus Travel Maps. 200203. ISBN 0-7946-0070-0. Check date values in: |date= (help)
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