New Texas

The official flag of the Confederate States of America in 1865, the year New Texas was established.

New Texas was a colony established in São Paulo, Brazil by remnants of the Confederacy after their defeat in the American Civil War. The New Texas colony's leader was Frank McMullen.[1][2][3] The colonists were shipwrecked on the coast of Cuba during their first attempt to get to Brazil, and only successfully made their way there on their second attempt.[4] McMullen died of tuberculosis about two years after the establishment of the colony.[3]


Following the end of the American Civil War, many former Confederates desired to flee the now-unified United States of America. This inclination was fueled by resentment towards their new "oppressive" leaders, along with a conviction that the economic and political conditions of the South would be slow to improve during the era of Reconstruction.[5][6] For some, they chose to flee to another country in hopes of preserving their former way of life, including slavery, but as immigration was an expensive action, not all were able to participate. In addition to this, several Confederate leaders (including General Robert E. Lee) discouraged individuals from leaving the country.[6] One popular destination for these displaced citizens was Brazil due to the fact slavery was still legal, resulting in up to 20,000 people immigrating from the South.[2][6]

Initial Settlement

In 1865, Frank McMullen left for Brazil with 154 former citizens of the Confederacy in hopes of starting a successful colony. They were hoping to take advantage of the lax immigration laws of Brazil at the time.[3] The Emperor of Brazil at the time, Dom Pedro II, actively encouraged Confederate immigration; there were efforts to provide financial assistance and land to the incoming Southerners.[2][5] McMullen decided to start his settlement on a 50 square-leagues plot of land South of São Paulo, leading to the official foundation of New Texas.[3]

See also


  1. Harter, Eugene C. (2000). The Lost Colony of the Confederacy. Texas A & M University Press. p. 44. ISBN 1585441023.
  2. 1 2 3 "Edwin S. James research materials". University of South Carolina. Retrieved 2014-01-05.
  3. 1 2 3 4 "MCMULLAN, FRANCIS". Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 2014-01-05.
  4. Harter, Eugene C. (2000). The Lost Colony of the Confederacy. Texas A & M University Press. p. 47. ISBN 1585441023.
  5. 1 2 "Lost Colony of the Confederacy - Texas A&M University Consortium Press". Retrieved 2016-02-23.
  6. 1 2 3 Cupples, Douglas W. (1995-12-01). "Review of Harter, Eugene C., The Lost Colony of the Confederacy". Retrieved 2016-02-23.

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