Sayyid dynasty

For the Kashmiri dynasty, see Shah Mir Dynasty.
Sayyid dynasty
The tomb of Muhammad Shah at Lodi Gardens, New Delhi.
Capital Delhi
Languages Persian (official)[1]
Religion Islam
Government Sultanate
   1414–1421 Khizr Khan
  1445–1451 Alam Shah
   Established 28 May 1414
   Disestablished 19 April 1451
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Tughlaq dynasty
Lodi dynasty
Today part of  India
Part of a series on the
History of India
History of India

The Sayyid dynasty was the fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate from 1414 to 1451. They succeeded the Tughlaq dynasty and ruled that sultanate until they were displaced by the Lodi dynasty.

They claimed to belong to the family of Sayyids or the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima and son-in-law and cousin Ali who belonged to the Banu Hashim Clan of the Quraish Tribe. After Timur sacked Delhi and ended the Delhi Sultanate in 1398, he appointed these Sayyids as the governor of Delhi. Their 37-year period of dominance witnessed the rule of four different members of the dynasty.

The dynasty was established by Sayyid Khizr Khan, deputised by Timur to be the governor of Multan (Punjab). Khizr Khan took Delhi from Daulat Khan Lodi on May 28, 1414 and founded the Sayyid dynasty. But he did not take up the title of sultan and nominally, continued to be a Rayat-i-Ala (vassal) of the Timurids, initially of Timur and after his death, his successor Shah Rukh, grandson of Timur.[2] Khizer Khan was succeeded by his son Sayyid Mubarrak Khan after his death on May 20, 1421, who styled himself as Muizz-ud-Din Mubarak Shah in his coins. A detailed account of his reign is available in the Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi written by Yahya-bin-Ahmad Sirhindi. After the death of Mubarak Shah, his nephew Sayyid Muhammad Khan ascended the throne and styled himself as Sultan Muhammad Shah. Just before his death, he called his son Sayyid Ala-ud-Din from Badaun and nominated him as his successor.

The last ruler of this dynasty, Sayyid Ala-ud-Din Alam Shah voluntarily abdicated the throne of the Delhi sultanate in favour of Bahlul Khan Lodi on April 19, 1451, and left for Badaun. He continued to live there till his death in 1478.[3]

The rulers

  1. Khizr Khan 1414–1421[4]
  2. Mubarak Shah 1421–1434
  3. Muhammad Shah 1434–1445
  4. Ala ud din shah 1445-1451

Sayyid Khizr Khan

Billon Tanka of Khizr Khan INO Firoz Shah Tughlaq

Khizr Khan was the governor of Multan under Firuz Shah Tughlaq. When Timur invaded India, Khizr Khan a sayyid from Multan joined him. Timur appointed him the governor of Multan and Lahore. He then conquered the city of Delhi and started the rule of the Sayyids in 1414. He was ruling in name of Timur. He could not assume an independent position in all respects. As a mark of recognition of the suzerainty of the Mongols, the name of the Mongol ruler (Shah Rukh) was recited in the khutba but as an interesting innovation, the name of khizr khan was also attached to it. But strangely enough the name of Mongol ruler was not inscribed on the coins and the name of old Tughlaq sultan continued on the currency. No coins are known in the name of Khizr Khan.[5]

Sayyid Mubarak Shah

Double falus of Mubarak Shah

Mubarak Shah was, the son of Khizr Khan. He came to the throne in 1421. He was a man of great vision, but the nobles were against him and kept revolting.

Sayyid Muhammad Shah

Muhammad Shah was a nephew of Mubarak Shah. He ruled from 1434-1443

Sayyid Ala-ud-din Alam Shah

Billon Tanka of 80 rati of Alam Shah

Alam Shah was a weak ruler. In 1451 he surrendered Delhi to Bahlul Lodi and went to Budaun where He spent rest of his life.

See also


  1. "Arabic and Persian Epigraphical Studies - Archaeological Survey of India". Retrieved 2010-11-14.
  2. Mahajan, V.D. (1991, reprint 2007). History of Medieval India, Part I, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, p.237
  3. Mahajan, V.D. (1991, reprint 2007). History of Medieval India, Part I, Now Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, p.244
  4. Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 122–123. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  5. Nizami, K.A. (1970, reprint 2006) A Comprehensive History of India, Vol-V, Part-1, People Publishing House, ISBN 81-7007-158-5, p.631


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